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H-JH-V^-? ^(oo{ 



DARWINISM TESTED 



BY THE 



SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 



DARWINISM TESTED 



BY THE 



SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 



Cranskt^lr from i^t (^txmm 



OF 



PROFESSOR AUGUST SCHLEICHER, 

IV/TH PREFACE AND ADDITIONAL NOTES, 



DR. ALEX. V. W. BIKKERS. 



LONDON : 
JOHN CAMDEN HOTTEN, 74 & 75, PICCADILLY. 

1869. 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 



T AW and order pervade the universe ; as 
we proceed in unbiassed investigation 
of the reahn of nature we see the clouds of 
wonder and ignorance dispelled by the torch 
of knowledge and truth. As the Italian 
poet has it : — 

La maraviglia 

Deir ignoranz' e la figlia, 

E del saper 

La madre. 

I have always looked upon the idea of creation 
from nothing as so absurd, so inconsistent, so 
unphilosophical, as hardly to deserve the very 
name of an idea except by way ot courtesy. 
My favourite stud3% glossology, or the 
science of language, was the first to convei't 



8 TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 

me to Darwinism. Here, as elsewhere, I 
trusted to the grand principle of analogy 
which underlies so many more of the mys- 
teries of nature. 

Ever since 1864, when Fritz Mueller 
published his remarkable pamphlet, "fuer 
Darwin," a test of Darwinism by one parti- 
cular group of animals, the Crustacea, it 
occurred to me that other investigators of 
natural science might apply the main prin- 
ciples laid down in the " Origin of Species" 
to their own particular branch of study. 

It is but fair to say that Dr. Mueller had 
been forestalled in his attempt by one of his 
countrymen, August Schleicher, a distin- 
guished glossologist, and a Professor at the 
University of Jena. His open missive (or 
public letter) to Professor Ernst Haeckel, 
his learned colleague and the great cham- 
pion of Darwinism in Germany, is the 
pamphlet here presented in an English garb. 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 9 

As the translator of Dr. Mueller's treatise 
says of himself — " My chief object has been 
to furnish, as nearly as possible, a literal 
version of the original, regarding mere ele- 
gance of expression as of secondary impor- 
tance in a scientific work." It is always 
hard to have to deal with any scientific 
dissertation written on a subject, the termi- 
nology of which is still unsettled, and in a 
language living on its own stock, possessing 
such words as EntwicTieluvgsgescUichte, Ur- 
sprache, Grundsprache, lautlich, Lautform, and 
others of a similarly embarrassing nature. 

Not the shadow of a doubt lurks in my 
own mind that the science of language, al- 
though still in its infancy, is the highest 
and at the same time the easiest test of Mr. 
Darwin's theory. 

It is with such a conviction that I venture 
to issue this English translation of Professor 
Schleicher's brochure, not only as an addi- 



10 TRANSLATORS FBEFACE. 

tional witness to the soundness of Darwin's 
theory, nor even as a mere adding of mate- 
rial to the literature of Darwinism, already 
represented by the names of Bree and Dau- 
beny (1860), of Von Pelzen (1861), of Eolle 
(1863), of riourens (1864), of Hallier and 
Young (1865), of Haeckel and 0. E. Schmidt 
(1866), of Professor Omboui (1867), of 
Buechner and Twemlow (1868), and last, 
not least, of Fritz Mueller, whose testimony 
hardly reached England before the begin- 
ning of this year. 

The fruit of my labour may be regarded 
in no other light than that of an humble 
palm-leaf on the shrine of a man who has 
promulgated truth in his attempt to cut 
short the existence of error. 

It may not be superfluous for the non-pro- 
fessional student of language to receive the 
additional assurance that all data furnished 
by the German glossologist, as far as his 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 11 

own department is concerned, are acknow- 
ledged axiomata in the science of language, 
with the sole exception, perhaps, of the very- 
bold statement (p. 47) concerning the im- 
possibility of a common origin of speech, in 
which I for one do not concur. 

Not until after I had finished my trans- 
lation of Professor Schleicher's remarkable 
pamphlet did I receive information of the 
author's premature demise, which occurred 
at the close of the past year. I embrace 
this opportunity to express my sincere 
thanks to Professor Ernst Haeckel of the 
University of Jena for this and other 
valuable communications directly or in- 
directly connected with the subject of Dar- 
winism. 

A. V. W. B. 

London, Oct. 5ih, 1869, 



DAKWINISM TESTED 



BY THE 



SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 



TTOU would leave me no peace until I began 
reading Bronn's translation* of the 
much discussed work of Darwin " On the 
Origin of Species by Means of Natural 
Selection, or the Preservation of Fa- 
voured Eaces in the Struggle for Life." 
I have complied with your request ; I have 



* " Ueber die Entstehung der Arten in Tliier- und Pflan- 
zenreich durch natuerliche Zuechtung, oder Erhaltung der 
vervoUkommneten Kassen im Kampfe urns Dasein." The 
work was translated from the second edition by Heinrich 
Georg Bronn, an eminent German naturalist, and published 
at Stuttgart in I860.— T. 



14 DARWINISM TESTED BY 

waded through the whole of the book, in 
spite of its being rather clumsily arranged, 
and heavily written in a curious kind of 
German, and the greater part of the work I 
was tempted to read again and again. My 
first thanks are now ofiered to you for those 
repeated inducements of yours which ended 
in my study of this incontestably remark- 
able work. In supposing that Darwin's 
" Origin of Species" would please me, 
you were thinking no doubt, in the first 
place, of my amateur gardening and 
botanizing. I confess that our garden- 
ing presents many and many an oppor- 
tunity of observing for example that 
" struggle for life" which we are wont 
to decide in favour of our chosen pets, and 
which, in the language of ordinary life, 
goes by the name of " weeding." Another 
point, which the gardener may experience 
more often than he wishes, is how one 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 15 

single plant is capable of spreading, as soon 
as it finds room and favourable oppor- 
tunities. Finally, with regard to " the 
variation of species," to " inheritance," 
in a word, with respect to " selection," 
there also is a large field of observation 
and experience for a man who has so Jong 
ridden the hobby of cultivating in diffe- 
rent directions one of our beautiful flowers 
that is most capable of variation. 

Yet, my dear friend, you were not alto- 
gether on the right track, when you wished 
to make me acquainted with the remarkable 
book, on account of my love for garden- 
ing; Darwin's views and theory struck me 
in a much higher degree, when I apphed 
them to the science of language. 

What Darwin lays down of the animal 
creation in general, can equally be said of 
the organisms of speech — nay, it is quite 
accidentally that I pronounced an opinion 



16 DAItWINISM TESTED BY 

coinciding in a remarkable degree with. 
Darwin's views on " the struggle for life," 
on the extinction of ancient forms, on the 
widely-spread varieties of individual species 
in the field of speech, as far back as the 
year 1860 — that is to say, contempora- 
neously v/ith the publication of the Ger- 
man Darwin.* Can you wonder now that 
the book has made so strong an im- 
pression on me? 

If you further wish to know what kind 
of an impression the " Origin of Species," 
has made upon me, I am quite willing 
to gratify your curiosity, and that of the 
pnblic at large. To point out how the main 
features of Darwin's theory are applicable 
to the life of languages, or even, we might 



* Professor Schleicher states in a foot-note that the original 
English edition, although published in November, 1859, was 
still unknown to him when he published his " Deutsche 
Sprache" (1860). The passage in his own work here alluded 
to will be found translated in the Appendix. — T. 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 17 

say, how the development of human speech 
has ah-eady been unconsciously illustrative 
of the same, such a labour cannot fail to 
captivate you, the energetic champion of 
Darwinism. Moreover, I am inclined to 
believe that for others likewise my com- 
munication will not be altogether devoid 
of interest. Whilst, therefore, in the first 
place, I am addressing you, allowing my- 
self the harmless pleasure of surprising 
you with an " open letter," I am, above 
all, appealing to the naturalists, whom I 
should wish to take more notice of lan- 
guage than they have hitherto done. I do 
not here exclusively refer to a physiological 
investigatiou of the various sounds of 
speech, a study which has made considerable 
progress of late, but also to the observation 
and application of linguistic varieties in their 
significance for the natural history of man. 
What if those linguistic varieties were 

B 



18 BARWINI8M TESTED BY 

to form tlie basis of a natural system con- 
cerning the imique genus homo ? Is not the 
history of the formation and progress of 
speech the main aspect of that of the deve- 
lopment of mankind ? Thus much is certain, 
that a knowledge of linguistic relationship 
is absolutely requisite for anybody who 
wishes to obtain sound notions about the 
nature and being of man. 

It is m}'^ earnest desire that the natural 
history method should find more and more 
favour with those who investigate the 
subject of language in general. In this 
respect the following lines might induce a 
young glossologist* to take a leaf out of 



* I am the first, as far as I know, to use this modern 
Germanism, or Jenaism, for the scientific, philosophical inves- 
tigator of language; but a name had to he coined or adapted 
for the man of science, who is neither to he compared with 
the linguist nor to he confused with the philologer. The 
heart-rending complaints about innovation, about foreignisms 
— genus and species — will invariably be found to arise from 



TEE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 19 

the books of able botanists and zoologrists. 
I pledge them my word that they will 
never repent it, and, for my own part, I feel 
how much I am indebted to such works as 
Schleiden's " Science of Botany,"* Carl 
Vogt's "Physiological Letters,"! &"c., for my 
conception of the nature and life of speech. 

Those books were the first to teach me 
the history of growth and development. 
We may learn from the experience of the 
naturalist, that nothing is of any im- 
portance to science but such facts as have 
been established by close objective ob- 



the side of those who are utterly ignorant of the nature of 
human speech. Foreign coin is not necessarily base coin ; it 
is at least entitled to a fair test. If a French " smasher " 
offers us such a coin as " hihliophile" or " patoisopJdle," it 
•will, of course, be refused by anybody who has not forgotten 
his government of the Greek verbs. — T. 

* An English translation by E. Lankester was published 
in 1849.— T. 

t " Physiologische Briefe fuer Gebildete aller Staende," 3 
parts. Stuttgart and Tuebingen, 1845-47, Svo. — T. 

B 2 



20 DAEWINI8M TESTED BY 

servation, and the proper conclusions 
derived from them ; nor would such a 
lesson be lost upon several of my colleagues. 
All those trifling, futile interpretations, 
those fanciful etj^mologies, that vague 
groping and guessing — in a word, all that 
which tends to strip the study of language 
of its scientific garb, and to cast ridicule 
upon the science in the eyes of thinking 
people — all this becomes perfectly intolerable 
to* the student who has learned to take his 
stand on the ground of sober observation. 
Nothing but the close watching of the 
different organisms and of the laws that 
regulate their life, nothing but our un- 
abated study of the scientific object, that, 
and that alone, should form the basis also 
of our training. All speculations, however 
ingenious, when not placed on this firm 
foundation, are devoid of scientific value. 
Languages are organisms of nature ; 



TSE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 21 

tliey liave never been directed by the will 
of man ; they rose, and developed them- 
selves according to definite laws ; they grew 
old, and died out. They, too, are subject 
to that series of phenomena which we 
embrace under the name of "life." The 
science of language^ is consequently a 
natural science; its method is generally 
altogether the same as that of any other 
natural science. f In this respect, the 
" Origin of Species," which you urged me 
to read, could not be said to lie so very 
far beyond my own department. 

Darwin's book is, in my opinion, called 
forth by the tendency of our age, save that 
passage where the author, humouring the 



* " Die Glottik," as the author says.— T. 
t I argued this very point in the spring of the current 
year in a course of three lectures, " On the Formation and 
Progress of Human Speech," delivered to the members of 
the " Torquay Natural History Society." — T. 



22 DABWINISM TESTED BY 

proverbial narrow-mindedness of liis coun- 
trymen in matters of religion, delivers him- 
self of the scarcely consistent confession 
that his views are not incompatible with the 
idea of the creation. Of course it is not 
our intention to touch upon that point here, 
but the passage is one in which Darwin 
contradicts himself ; his statements admit 
only of the notion of a gradual formation 
and development of organisms, not by any 
means of the idea of a sudden starting from 
nothing. The only logical conclusion to be 
drawn from Darwin's theory is that the 
common beginning of all living organisms 
must be sought in that single cell, whence 
proceeded, in the course of ages and ages, 
the entire fulness of the now existing living 
beings and of those already recovered ; that 
simplest form of life is now to be found in 
those organisms which are still on the lowest 
stage of development, and likewise in the 



TSE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 23 

embryo of higher beings. Darwin's book, 
then, it appears to me, is in perfect harmony 
with those fundamental notions of philo- 
sophy which we find more or less con- 
sciously or deliberately expressed by tlie 
greater part of those who have written on 
natural science. I will enter into some par- 
ticulars. 

The tendency of modern thought is unde- 
niably towards monism. Dualism, whether 
you are pleased to define it as the contrast 
of spirit and nature, of contents and form, 
of appearance and reality, is no longer a 
firm ground to stand upon, if we wish to 
survey the field of modern science. To the 
latter there is no matter without spirit 
(without the unavoidable force that governs 
it), nor, on the other hand, any spirit with- 
out matter. We might say, perhaps, that 
there is neither matter nor spirit in the 
usual acceptation of the words, but only a 



24 DARWINISM TESTED BY 

something which, is the one and the other 
at the same time.* It is true we are still 
without a philosophical system of monism, 
but the history of the development of 
modern philosophy is clearly indicative of a 
struggling for it. Besides, it should not be 
overlooked that the process of scientific 
labour has decidedly assumed a different 
aspect, in consequence of the modern way of 
thinking, and of looking at things in 
general. Whereas it was once customary 
first to prepare the system and then to 
mould the object accordingly, we now pro- 
ceed exactly in the opposite direction. It is 
now more than ever necessary to occupy 
oneself with the most minute special study 
of the object, without thinking at all of a 
systematic upbuilding of the whole. We 



* To charge this view — which is founded on observation — 
with materialism is equally unjust as to lay it at the door of 
spiritualism . — A. 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 25 

bear with the greatest placidity the lack of 
a philosophical system answering to the 
condition of the closest and minutest of our 
special investigations, convinced, as we are, 
that such a system cannot be framed as yet, 
or rather anxious to forbear from the at- 
tempt until we can command a satisfactory 
supply of reliable observations and trust- 
worthy data from every sphere of human 
knowledge. 

The importance which the observation of 
facts* has acquired for science in general, but 
more esjjecially for natural science, is the 
unavoidable result of the monistic principle, 
which does not look for anything behind the 
things, but looks upon the object as iden- 
tical with its form or appearance. Observa- 
tion is the foundation of modern knowledge ; 
nothing else is acceptable but the necessary 



* Prior to the framing of a system. — T. 



26 JDABWINISM TESTED BY 

conclusions arrived at through that channel. 
All a priori fabrics, all cut-and-dry sj'^stems, 
are not entitled to any higher consideration 
than any other witty trifling ; their place is 
in the lumber-room of science. 

Now observation teaches us that all living 
organisms, which fall at all within the 
proper reach of our observation, vary accord- 
ing to definite laws. These changes or varie- 
ties, this life, is the real essence or being of 
any organism ; and we never know anj^thing 
about the latter until we are cognizant of 
the former in their undivided entirety. In 
other words, so long as we are ignorant of 
how a thing arose we cannot be said to 
know it. The great importance which the 
developmental history and the scientific 
cognition of the life of the different organisms 
has assumed for the natural science of our 
time, is the necessary result of the principle 
of observation. 



TEE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 27 

The importance of developmental history 
for the cognition of the individual organism 
is universally acknowledged. It was first of 
all applied to zoology and botany. It is 
well known that Lyell has represented the 
life of our planet as a series of regularly 
and gradually arising variations ; a sudden 
and abrupt entering upon new phases of life 
is here equally unknown as in the life of 
any other organism of nature. Lyell ap- 
peals likewise to the observation of facts. 
Since the observation over a very short 
period of recent earthly life yields nothing 
more than the fact of a gradual variation, we 
are certainly not justified in pre-supposiug 
anything to have been different in the past. 
I have always started vdth a similar view in 
examining the life of languages, which falls 
likewise within the range of our immediate 
observation during its ultimate, most recent 
and comparatively very short period of 



28 BABWINISM TESTED BY 

existence. Yet this short time, a span of 
some thousands of years only, teaches ns 
with a most positive certainty that the life 
of the organisms of speech runs on according 
to definite laws in variations perfectly gra- 
dual, and that we have not the slightest 
right to suppose that it has ever been other- 
wise. 

Now Darwin, and those that preceded him, 
went a step further than the other zoologists 
and botanists ; not only have individuals, 
said they, a life, but likewise the species and 
the races; they, as well, have arisen gra- 
dually; they, also, are subject to continual 
changes according to definite laws. Like all 
our modern scholars Darwin appeals to ob- 
servation, although naturally spreading over 
a short period, just as in the life of our 
planet and in that of languages. Since the 
fact is noticeable that the species are not 
altogether constant or stationary, their capa- 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 29 

bility of variation is clearly, however 
restrictedl}'-, to be regarded as a point of 
observation. A mere accident- — namely, the 
shortness of the period over which we are 
able to extend such observations as might 
be called, practical — is the main reason why 
the variation of the species does not, on the 
whole, appear so very important. We have 
merely, consonantly with the results of other 
observations, to suppose that for thousands 
of millions of years there have been living 
beings in existence on our earth, and we 
shall soon understand how it was possible 
for the now-existing species and races to 
arise through continued gradual variations, 
analogous to those which have actually 
fallen under our own observation. 

It appears, therefore, to me, that Darwin's 
theory is but the unavoidable result of the 
principles recognised in the modern science 
of nature. It is founded upon observation. 



30 BABWINISM TESTED BY 

and is indeed an attempt at a Mstory ot 
development. Just what Lyell has done 
for the history of the life of the earth, Dar- 
win has attempted for that of the inhabi- 
tants of our planet. The theory of "the 
origin of species " is, therefore, no accidental 
apparition, not the product of one individual 
head, hut the true and legitimate offspring 
of our inquiring age. Darwin's theory is a 
necessity. 

The rules now, which Darwin lays down with 
regard to the species of animals and plants, are 
equally applicable to the organisms of laiiguages, 
that is to say, as far as the main features are 
concerned. 

To demonstrate this proposition is the 
end and aim of these pages ; but we did not 
deem it superfluous to point out in a general 
way how one common character pervades 
the whole cycle of the natural sciences — 
among which ranks the science of language 



TEE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 31 

— namely, the modern principle of observa- 
tion. 

Let us now take up the origin of species, 
and consider how far it is possible to con- 
front the science of language with the views 
represented by Darwin. 

It is necessary to observe beforehand, that 
although the relationship in the specifica- 
tion of human speech is, in the main, iden- 
tical with that in the realm of nature, yet 
the terminology of the glossologist is diffe- 
rent from that of the naturalist. This I 
must request you not to lose siglit of, for all 
that will follow depends upon it. What the 
naturalist terms a genus the glossologist 
calls a family, and such genera as are more 
closely related are often called the classes or 
branches of a family. I by no means deny 
that there is no more unanimity with regard 
to determining a genus or a family among the 
glossologists than among the zoologists and 



32 BABWINISM TESTED BY 

the botanists ; tliis is a peculiarity recurring' 
in all classification and specification, to which 
I shall have occasion to refer again.* The 
species of a genus are what we call the lan- 
guages of a family, the races of a species are 
with us the dialects of a language ; the sub- 
dialects or patois correspond with the 
varieties of the species, and that which is 
characteristic of a person's mode of speak- 
ingt corresponds with the individual. It 
is well known that the individuals of one 
and the same species are never altogether 
and absolutely identical ; it is the same with 
the individual of speech ; " native accent " 
is always more or less strongly developed. 
What Darwin now maintains with regard 



* And which has beset the translator here with great 
difficulties, which he does not flatter himself that he has 
altogether surmounted. — T. 

f Native accent I venture to call it : a phenomenon well 
worthy of the investigation of the physiologist. — T. 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 33 

to the variation of the species in the course 
of time, through which — when it does not 
reveal itself in all individuals in like manner 
and to the same extent — one form grows into 
several distinct other forms by a process of 
continual repetition, that has been long and 
generally recognised in its application to the 
organisms of speech. Such languages as 
we would call, in the terminology of the 
botanist or zoologist, the species of a genus, 
are for us the daughters of one stock- 
language,* whence they proceeded by gra- 
dual variation. Where we are sufficiently 
familiar with any particular family of speech 
we draw up a genealogical tablef similar to 



* I know no better word to render Grundsprache, since 
the term primitive language is the one which I have reserved 
for TJrsprache. — T. 

t Vide the one drawn up in the "Appendix" to Max 
Mueller's first series of "Lectures on the Science of Language," 
p. 411 in the fourth edition. — T. 



34 DARWINISM TESTED BY 

the one wliich Darwin attempted for the 
species of animals and plants. Nobody doubts 
or denies any longer that the whole Indo- 
germanic* family of speech — Indie, Iranic, 
(old Armenian, Persic, &c.,) Hellenic, Italic, 
(Latin, Oscan, Umbrian, with the daughters 
of the former,t) Keltic, Slavonic, Lithu- 
anian, Teutonic or German, that all 
these languages, consisting of numerous 
species, races and varieties, have taken their 
origin from one single primitive form 
of the Indo-Germanic family ; the same re- 
mark holds good with regard to the lan- 
guages of the Semitic family, which is well 

* I would have taken the liberty of substituting our more 
usual appellation of Avian, especially because I have already 
referred the naturalist to Dr. Mueller's tables, but for the 
author's own way of using the word ; an inconsistent termi- 
nology is the cause of much misunderstanding. — T. 

t That is to say, modern French, Italian, Spanish and Por- 
tuguese, Provenpal as now spoken in some parts of the South 
of France, and Wallachian, forming the group of Eomance or 
neo-Latin languages. 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 35 

known to include Hebraic, Sjriac, Arabic, 
&c.,* as well as of ail other ftimilies of 
speech, t By way of illustration, we add| 
genealogical tree of the Arian family of 
speech representing what we imagine to be 
the gradual development of the same ; in 
comparing this with Darwin's diagram, § one 
should not forget that the author of the 
" Origin of Species" had to draw up an ideal 
scheme, whereas we have represented the 
actual process of development of a given 
family. II Besides, it was not feasible to 



* The Aramaic is the northern branch of the Semitic 
family.— T. 

t There is one other family of speech already properly 
classified : the Turanian. — T. 

X See after the Appendix. — T. 

§ Page 130 of the fourth English edition.— T. 

II Better to be compared, and more in harmony, with Dar- 
win's scheme, is the likewise ideal diagram of the development 
of the different species and sub-species of speech from one 
primitive form, which I have drawn up in my "Deutsche 
Geschichte," S. 28.— A. 

C 2 



36 DARWINISM TESTED BY 

make our table a correct picture in every 
respect ; the sub-dialects (varieties) could 
merely be pointed out ; the ramifications of 
the Iranic and Indie brancli we were com- 
pelled to omit. 

If our diagram could speak it would 
express itself most likely in the following 
strain : — 

At a remote period of the existence of 
the human species, there was a language, 
a primitive language,* which we can pretty 
clearly recognise in the so-called Indo-Ger- 
manic languages to which it has given 
birth. t This primitive language, after 
having been spoken for several generations 
— the people who used it probably increas- 
ing and extending meanwhile — gradually 



* " Ursprache " in the original. — T. 
■j- In its application to grammatical formsl liave made the ex- 
periment in my Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of 
the ludo-Germanic Languages. Weimar, Bohlau, 1861-2. — A. 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 37 

assumed a different character in different 
parts of its domain, until at last it branched 
off into a couple of languages, or possibly into 
more than two, of which two only survived; 
the same applies to all ulterior ramification 
and division. Both these languages again 
submitted repeatedly to the process of 
ramification. The one branch or offshoot 
which, on account of its ulterior career, we 
will call the Slavonic. Teutonic divided in 
its turn through gradual re-ramification — 
Darwin's continual tendency to divergency 
of character — into Teutonic and Slavo-Lettic; 
of these the former became the mother of 
all the Germanic languages and dialects, 
whereas the latter gave rise to the Sla- 
vonic and Lithuanian (Baltic, Lettic) 
tongues. The other language which, by 
the process of ramification had developed 
itself out of the Indo-Grermanic primitive 
form, the Ario - Graeco - Italo - Keltic — 



38 DARWINISM TESTED BY 

pardon the sesquipedalian combination — 
again divided into a couple of idioms of whicli 
the one, the Grseco-Italo-Keltic, became the 
parent of Hellenic, Albanic, and of Italo- 
Keltic, the latter, so called because Italic 
and Keltic arose from it, whereas the other 
produced the Arian* language, the closely 
connected stocks of the Indicf as well as of 
the Tranic (Persic) class. It Avould be 



* The most ancient inhabitants of India and Irania (Persia) 
both called themselves Arians ; hence the name for the common 
stock-language of Indie and Iranic. — A. 

f The stock-language of the Indie class has been preserved 
to us in the language in which the old religious hymns of the 
Indians, the Veda hymns, ar^ written. From that idiom 
proceeded iu one direction the middle-Indic forms, the Pra- 
krit branches (further away the neo-Indlc languages and 
dialects — i.e., Bengalese, Mahratta, Hiudostanee, and cognate 
tongues), and in another direction Sanscrit, a written or lite- 
rary language, which was never the language of the people, 
but the medium of the post-Vedic Indian literature ; in some 
measure the Latin of India, the written Latin of the Romans, 
which remains up to the present time the vernacular of the' 
learned. — A. 



TRE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 39 

superfluous to go on with tlie translation 
of our diagrams into words.* 

It would of course be easy to draw up a 
similar tree of any other family of speech 
of which the point of mutual kinship is 
sufficiently established. 

In such languages and dialects as are 
closely related, we see an indication of 
recent separation from the common stock ; 
the more any languages of the same family 
vary in character, the earlier we suppose 
was their migration from the native hearth, 
since we place the variety to the account of 
a longer individual development. 

Now it is possible that you, my worthy 
coUeaorue, and such naturalists as have 
not devoted themselves to the study of 
human speech, may feel inclined to ask 



* For further details I refer to my " Deutsche Sprache," 
S. 71, &c.— A. . 



40 , DARWINISM TESTED BY 

me whence we derive all this knowledge. 
To draw up a tree, similar to the one 
here adduced as illustrative of the develop- 
ment of speech, for such species of animals 
and plants as are sufficiently investigated, 
thereby sujDposing that they are descended 
from primitive forms, and to determine 
the latter in their principal features, is 
certainly not anything impracticable. But 
the question is whether it is admissible to 
suppose that such primitive forms ever did 
exist. Who gives you, glossologists, the 
right, you might ask, to give out that 
those stock- and primitive languages which 
you have arrived at through the existing 
forms of speech, can be safely taken for 
realities ? Who assures us that your genea- 
logical trees are anything better than the 
productions of your imagination? How is 
it that you are so unanimously convinced 
of the variation of species, of the rami- 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 41 

fication of one form into several others in 
the course of ages, whereas we, zoologists 
and botanists, look upon all this as the 
quastio vexata, whilst several among us, con- 
sidering the existence of the species spon- 
taneous or beginningless, are coolly sitting 
in judgment over Darwin because he 
holds very much the same opinion, with 
regard to the animal and vegetable king- 
dom, as you do of the species of language? 

Here is my answer. To trace the de- 
velopment of new forms from anterior ones 
is much easier, and can be executed on a 
larger scale, in the field of speech than 
in the organisms of plants and animals. 
For once the glossologist has an ad- 
vantage over his brother naturalists in this 
respect. We are actually able to trace 
directly in many idioms that they have 
branched off into several languages, dialects 
&c., for we are in a position to follow the 



42 DAllWINISM TESTED BY 

course of some, nay, of whole families of 
them during a period of more than two 
thousand jea,Ys, since a faithful picture of 
them has been left us in writing. This, 
for instance, is the case with Latin. We 
know the ancient Latin quite as well as 
the Romance languages, its unmistakable 
offspring, partly through the process of 
ramification and partly through foreign 
influence, which you, gentlemen, would 
call crossing ; we know the ancient Indie ; 
we know the idioms which first emanated 
from it as well as its less distant offshoots, 
the neo-Indian dialects. So you see that 
we have a firm and solid ground to stand 
on for our observation. What we know 
now of those languages which, owing to 
an accident, we have been able to watch 
for so long a period of time, because the 
people who spoke them have been obliging 
enough to leave written records behind 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 43 

from a comparatively early time, may 
be otherwise supposed in respect of other 
families of languages, which do not possess 
those exponents of their earlier forms. We 
therefore know positively from the obser- 
vation of collected facts that languages 
change as long as they live, and for 
this knowledge we are indebted to the art 
of writing. 

But for the invention of the art of writing 
the student of language would never have 
imagined, up to the present day, that such 
languages as Eussian, German, and French, 
for example, are descended, after all, from 
one and the same stock. Nay it is quite 
possible that nobody would ever have 
hit upon the idea of a common origin 
for any languages whatsoever, however 
closely related, or ever would have sup- 
posed that a language is subject to any 
change at all. Without wa-itten records 



44 DARWINISM TESTED BY 

we should be still worse off than the 
zoologists and botanists, who have at all 
events remains of anterior formations at 
their disposal, and whose scientific objects 
are generally more open to observation 
than languages. As it is, we are better 
off for materials of observation than the 
other naturalists, and therefore we have 
forestalled you in the idea of the non- 
creation of the species. Perhaps also the 
changes may have generally taken place 
in shorter periods of time in language 
than in the animal and vegetable king- 
doms, so that the zoologist or botanist 
could only be favourably contrasted with 
us, if he had been able to observe in some 
genera at least a complete chain of what 
we might call pre-historic forms, and these 
moreover represented by specimens care- 
fully preserved — that is to say, flesh and 
blood, leaf, blossom, and fruit. The kin- 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 45 

sMp of the different languages may con- 
sequently serve, so to speak, as a paradig- 
matic illustration of the origin of species, 
for those fields of inquiry which lack, for 
the present at least, any similar oppor- 
tunities of observation. Besides, as we 
have already remarked, the difierence in 
observing-material is merely quantitative, 
not specific, for it is an acknowledged 
fact that the capability of variation applies 
in a certain degree to the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms. 

From what we have thus far stated 
with regard to the ramification of one 
primitive form into several others, gradually 
divero-incr the one from the other, it fol- 
lows that it is impossible to draw any 
definite and distinct lines of demarcation 
for the different stages of human speech — 
that is to say, for language, dialect, patois, 
&c. The varieties indicated by these terms 



46 DARWINISM TESTED BY 

have gradually developed themselves and 
grown out of each other ; they differ more- 
over characteristically in every group of 
languages. Thus, for instance, the re- 
lationship between the various languages 
of the Semitic family is essentially diffe- 
rent from that between the offshoots of 
the Indo- Germanic stock, and quite distinct 
from both is the kinship of the Finnic 
languages (Finnish, the idioms of the 
Lapps and Magyars, &c.) This will ex- 
plain the fact that no glossologist is as 
yet able actually to give a satisfactory 
definition of language in contradistinction 
to dialect, and so forth. What some call 
a language, others term a dialect, and vice 
versd. Even the field of the Indo-Germanic 
languages, however accurately explored, is 
a point in evidence. Thus many glos- 
sologists speak of the Slavonic dialects, 
others of the Slavonic languages; even 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 47 

the various idioms wliich. constitute tlie 
German or Teutonic language have some- 
times been spoken of as dialects. 

Darwin says* in his book : " Certainly 
no clear line of demarcation has, as yet, 
been drawn between species and sub- 
species — that is, the forms which, in the 
opinion of some naturalists, come very 
near to, but do not quite arrive at, the 
rank of species ; or, again, between sub- 
species and well-marked varieties, or be- 
tween lesser varieties and individual diffe- 
rences. These differences blend into each 
other in an insensible series ; and a series 
impresses the mind with the idea of an 
actual passage." Well, if for the terms 
species, sub-species, variety, we substitute 
the words language, dialect, patois, as 
used by the glossologist, Darwin's state- 



* Page 60 of the fourth original edition, — T. 



48 DABWimSM TESTED BY 

ment holds perfectly good witli regard to 
those divergences of speech in the bosom 
of one family, of which we have already 
illustrated the gradual process of develop- 
ment. 

But how stands the fact with the 
creation of the genera? that is to say, 
in the glossologist's phraseology, with the 
self-development of those mother-languages 
which have given birth to the different 
families of speech? Do we here observe 
the same phenomenon as we did in the 
offshoots of a family; do those parent 
idioms again descend from a common stock, 
and all these in the end from one single 
primitive form of speech ? 

This question might be decided with 
greater certainty if we had examined the 
primitive form of a good many more 
families of speech through their descendants 
than we have done, but for the present 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 49 

we are almost entirely unprepared for that. 
Something however is to be arrived at with 
regard to the question raised, from the 
observation of such languages as we are 
sufficiently acquainted with. 

Above all, the varieties of those special 
families of speech, which have been care- 
fully examined, are so great and of such a 
nature, as to render it impossible for any 
unbiassed mind to believe in a common 
origin. Nobody, for example, is able to 
imagine a language that could have given 
birth, let us say, to Indo-Germanic and 
Chinese, to Semitic and Hottentot;* nay, 
even if we take the primitive forms of more 



* I think it hardly fair to put a whole family in juxta- 
position with single offshoots, especially when morphologically 
belonging to different orders or stages of the species. I un- 
reservedly admit that the Arian and Semitic are two clearly 
distinct systems of grammar, but does that touch the radical 
elements of the languages based upon either ? — T. 



50 DABWINI8M TESTED BY 

coarnate families, as of Indo-Germanic and 
Semitic, we cannot arrive at tlie conclusion 
that they have descended from a common 
parent. What we may call a material 
derivation of all languages from one 
common primitive form, we may safely 
suppose to be impossible. 

But the question assumes a different 
aspect with regard to the form of speech. 
All the languages of a higher organization — 
as for instance the Indo-Germanic parent 
which we are able to examine — show by 
their construction, in a striking manner, 
that they have arisen from simj)ler forms, 
through a process of gradual development. 
The construction of all languages points 
to this, that the eldest forms were in reality 
alike or similar; and those less complex 
forms are preserved in some idioms of the 
simplest kind, as, for example, Chinese. 
In a word, the point from which all 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 61 

languages had their issue were significant 
sounds, simple sound-symbols of percep- 
tions, conceptions, and ideas, which might 
assume the functions of any grammatical 
form, although such functions were not 
denoted by any particular expression, 
although they were not organized, as we 
might say. In this remote stage of the 
life of speech, there is consequently no 
distinction in word or sound*' between 
verbs and nouns; there is neither declen- 
sion nor conjugation. Let us endeavour by 
one example to illustrate our meaning. 
The oldest form of those words, which in 
modern German sound T/iat, gethan, time, 
Thaeter, tJiaetig,\ was at the dawn of the 
Indo-Germanic primitive language dha, its 
meaning, to put, to do : old Indie, dha ; 



* lautlich.— T. 
f The same holds good with the corresponding forms in 
English, deed, done, do, doer, doing. — T. 

d3 



52 DABWmiSM TESTED BY 

old Bactric, da, Grreek, ^e, Lettic and 
Slavonic, de, Gothic, da, high German, ta. 
Now this d/ia is found to be the common 
root of all the words given above, and 
although this cannot be demonstrated here, 
it is an established fact to any student of 
the Indo-Germanic family of speech. When 
this primitive idiom had reached a higher 
degree of development, certain particular 
relations began to be expressed by the 
agglutination or duplication of the radical 
elements, which still retained the function 
of words, and had an independent existence. 
To indicate, for instance, the first person of 
the present tense, one said d1ia-dha-ma ; 
whence grew afterwards, as the result of 
the fusion of elements and the variability 
of roots, the trisyllable dhadhdmi, old Indie, 
dddhdmi ; old Bactric, dadhdmi ; Greek, 
Ti^rifxi; old high German, torn, tuom, for 
ietbmi ; modern German, t/tue. In that 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 53 

oldest form d/ta, slumbered tlie different 
grammatical relations,* 'verbal and nominal, 
with all tbeir modifications, unsevered as yet 
and undeveloped, as we may observe in those 
languages that have remained stationary on 
this simple stage of development. What we 
have shown by an illustration selected at 
random, applies to all Indo-Grermanic words. 
You, and your fellow naturalists, will best 
understand my argument, when I charac- 
terize the radical elements as the celis of 
speech, not yet containing any particular 
organs for the functions of nouns, verbs, etc., 
and in which these functions (the grammatical 
relations,) are no more separated yet than 



* Ernest Renan is, so far as I know, the only glossologist 
who holds the opinion that all the so-called parts of speech 
had their respective functions eked out for them, so to say, at 
the very dawn of language. Does he imagine that they issued 
forth from an arsenal of human speech as "the blue-eyed 
maid " burst forth, speared and shielded, from the head-womb 
of thundering Jove ? — T. 



54 DARWINISM TESTED BY 

respiration and digestion are in the one- 
celled organisms, or in the ovary of the higher 
living beings.* 

We assume therefore that all languages 
have had the same original form. When 
man had found his way from gesticulation 
and imitation of sound, to sounds expressive 
of meaning, these were yet mere forms of 
sound without any grammatical relation. 
Still, with regard to the sound-material of 
which they consisted, and in respect to the 
meaning which they expressed, those sim- 
plest beginnings of language differed among 
the different people ; this is evinced by the 
diversity of languages that have developed 
themselves from those beginnings. We 
suppose, therefore, an innumerable mul- 
titude of primitive languages, but all alike, 
of one and the same form. 



* Compare K. Snell, " die Schoepfung des Menschen." 
Leipzig, 1863, S. 81, etc. — A. 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 55 

Somewhat analogous is, probably, the 
origin of tbe vegetable and animal orga- 
nisms ; the simple cell is, no doubt, the 
common primitive form of those, as the 
simple root is that of the languages. The 
simplest forms of the later animal and vegeta- 
ble life, the cells, we may likewise suppose to 
have originated in a multitude at a certain 
period of the life of our earth, just as the 
simplest words in the world of speech. 
These incipient forms of organic life, that 
could neither be called animals nor plants, 
afterwards developed themselves in various 
directions. Just so the radical elements of 
the languages. 

Since we are able to observe within a 
historical period that the changes in any 
language, when used by any people under 
essentially similar conditions of life, are 
symmetrical in the mouths of all indivi- 
duals who speak it, we assume in conse- 



56 DABWINI8M TESTED BY 

quence thereof that language developed 
itself in a like manner in the case of like 
men. For the method which we have 
developed above, namely to conclude from 
the known to the unknown, does not allow 
us to suppose any other laws of life, in 
any period which lies beyond the range of 
our observation, than those which we have 
remarked over the course of observation to 
which we have had access. 

Under different circumstances languages 
develop themselves also in a different 
manner ; nay, it is highly probable that the 
diversity of languages is in direct ratio to 
that of the conditions of man^s life in 
general. The original dispersion of the 
languages over the earth must therefore have 
been a very regular one ; neighbour-idioms 
must have more resembled each other than 
the vernaculars of men who lived in different 
parts of the world. Issuing from a certain 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 57 

point, and in proportion as they deviated 
from it, the languages must have grouped 
themselves in continually increasing devia- 
tion from the stock-idiom, since geographical 
distance entails a growing variety of climate 
and vital conditions. Even now we imagine 
that we observe traces of the absolute 
necessity of that regular division of speech. 
The American languages for instance, the 
idioms of the South-Sea Islands, clearly point 
to a common type in spite of all their 
variety. Nay, even on the European- Asiatic 
continent, where the linguistic relationship 
has been subject to such important change 
owing to historical events, even there we find, 
undeniably, certain groups of essentially 
similar branches of speech. Indo-Germanic, 
Einnic, Turkic, Tataric, Mongolic, Tun- 
gusic,* as well as Dekhanic, (Tamulic etc.,) 



* The autliov's mands/iun'sc/i, not being very usual in our 



•58 DABWimSM TESTED BY 

all these idioms, for instance, resemble eacli 
other in the suffix-construction, that is to say 
in this, that all formative elements, all sym- 
bols of relation are grafted upon the termina- 
tion of the root ; they are never placed before 
or in the middle of the radical element.* 

Let the roots be represented by R, one 
or more suffixes by s, infixes by i, prefixes 
by jj, and we shall be able to explain 
our meaning in a very few words, as 
follows : the verbal form of all the idioms 
named is denoted by the morphological 
formula Es ; for the Indo-Germanic family 
it would be more correct to use the 
formula E^s, for E"" denotes any root 



English terminology, I have taken the liberty of substituting 
Tungusic, the language to which the vernacular of the Mand- 
shu tribes belongs. — T. 

* Exceptions, as, for instance, the augment of the Indo- 
Germanic verb, are merely apparent, but this we cannot enter 
into. Compare i. a on the augment my " Comp. der vgl. 
Gramm." &c. S. 292, s. 567.— A. 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 59 

capable of regular change to the end of 
expressing relation, as, for instance, Band 
Bund, Bind-e ; Flug, Flieg-e, Jlog ; grahe, 
gruh ; riss, reisse ; e-Xi-ttoi', \uit-ii), Xk-Xonr-a, 
and so forth. Other languages have more 
than one verbal form ; the Semitic family 
for instance has E^ p E^ E^s, p E^'s, etc. 
Yet in spite of this great contrast to the 
Indo-Gernianic family which is represented 
by the formula p E'' (being the prefix- 
construction), the two neighbours do again 
concur in this respect that they are the 
only idioms which are known for a cer- 
tainty to have the radical form E^. 

Such striking analogies in the con- 
struction of families geographically allied 
we imagine to be the posthumous births 
from the time of the earlier and earliest 
career of human speech. The homes and 
hearths of those languages which are 
essentially analogous in their principle of 



60 BABWIKISM TESTED BY 

construction; we hold to be not very re- 
mote from each, other. The floras and 
faunas of the isolated parts of the world 
present a characteristic type in a similar 
way as the languages do. 

Now we observe during historical periods 
how species and genera of speech dis- 
appear, and how others extend themselves 
at the expense of the dead. I only remind 
you, by way of illustration, of the spread 
of the Indo-Germanic family and the decay 
of the American languages. In the earlier 
times, when the languages were still 
spoken by comparatively weak populations, 
this dying out of forms of speech was, no 
doubt, of much more frequent occurrence, 
and, as the idioms of a higher organization 
must have existed for a very long time — 
as evinced by their superior development, 
by their senile forms, and by the slow 
variation of speech in general — it follows 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 61 

that the pre-historic period of the life of 
speech must have been a much longer 
one than that which falls within the 
limits of historical record. Of course we 
have no knowledge of any language be- 
fore the time that the people who spoke 
it committed its forms to writing. We 
must therefore suppose myriads of years, 
or at any rate a very long period, which 
witnessed the disappearance of organisms 
of speech and the breaking up of original 
relationship.* It is very possible that 
many more species of speech perished 
during the course of that time than the 
number of those which have prolonged 
their existence up to the present day. 
This explains the possibility of so great 
an extension as for instance that of the 
Indo-Germanic, the Finnic, the j\Ialay and 



* CoQip. Deutsohe Sprache, S. 41, etc.— A. 



62 DARWINISM TESTED BY 

South-African families, which, over a large 
territory, branched off into such a multi- 
tude of directions. A similar process is 
assumed by Darwin with regard to the 
animal and vegetable creation ; that is 
what he calls "the struggle for life." A 
multitude of organic forms had to perish 
in this struggle in order to make room 
for comparatively few favoured^ races. But 
let Darwin speak for himself He says : 
" The dominant species of the larger do- 
minant groups tend to leave many modi- 
fied descendants behind, and thus arise 
new groups and sub-groups. In propor- 
tion as these arise, the feebler groups, in 
consequence of their common inheritance 
of imperfection, incline to a common ex- 
tinction, without leaving any modified 
issue behind on any part of the surface 
of the earth. The complete extinction of 
any group of species may often be a 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 63 

very slow process, when some species 
manage to prolong their languishing ex- 
istence for a long time yet in sheltered 
or isolated places." This happens with 
languages in the mountains ; I merely 
call your attention to the Basque in the 
Pyrenees, which is the ruins or remnants 
of an idiom which can be proved at one 
time to have been widely spread ; the 
same phenomenon may be observed in 
the Caucasus and elsewhere. 

" If any group has once been extin- 
guished it can never appear again, because 
a chain in the link of generation has 
been broken." 

"This explains how the extension of 
dominant species which admit of the 
greatest variation, peoples the earth in 
the course of time with other forms of 
life, closely related though modified; and 
how these generally succeed in supplant- 



6i JDABWINISM TESTED BY 

ing those groups of species which succumb 
to them in the struggle for existence."* 

Not a word of Darwin's need be changed 
here if we wish to apply this reasoning to 
the languages. Darwin describes here 
with striking accuracy the process of the 
struggle for existence in the field of human 
speech. In the present period of the life 
of man the descendants of the Indo- 
Germanic family are the conquerors in 
the struggle for existence; they are en- 
gaged in continual extension, and have 
already supplanted or dethroned numerous 
other idioms. The multitude of the Indo- 
Germanic species and sub-species is illus- 
trated by our genealogical tree. 



* Unfortunately I have not the edition at hand from which 
the German translation has been made. It must have differed 
a good deal from the fourth edition used by myself, and this 
may account for, if not excuse, my not having used, perhaps, 
Mr. Darwin's exact words. — T. 



THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 65 

The extinction of sucli a vast multitude 
of idioms entailed tlie death of many 
intermediate forms ; the migration of the 
peoples caused the shifting of the original 
kinship of languages, so that it may now 
happen that idioms of essentially different 
form have all the appearance of neighbours, 
whereas no intermediate forms are found be- 
tween them. Such, for instance, is the case 
with the Basque, a stray island in the Indo- 
Germanic Archipelago. Darwin says essen- 
tially the same of the relations of animals 
and plants. 

This, my dear friend and colleague, is 
about what occurred to me as I studied 
your favourite Darwin, of whose theory 
you are such an energetic advocate and 
missionary, so much so that, as I have just 
been informed, you have even incurred the 
wrath of journalistic zealots. Of course 
no more than the principles of Darwinism 

E 



66 DARWINISM TESTED. 

could be applied to the languages. The 
realm of speech is too widely different from 
both the animal and vegetable kingdoms to 
make the science of language a test of all 
Darwin's inductions and their details. 

So much the more positive however, in 
the realm of speech, is the origin of species 
through gradual ramification and the preser- 
vation of the higher organisms in the struggle 
for existence. The two main points in 
Darwin's theory have this in common with 
many other important discoveries, that they 
are confirmed even in those spheres which 
at first had been left unnoticed.* 



* Darwin briefly touches the point of languages, and 
rightly suspects that the mutual kinship of the same would be 
a confirmation of his theory. — A. Vide p. 498, 4th Edition. 



APPENDIX. 

(See the Note, page 16.) 



TiUEING- so long a period, extending over 
thousands of 3^ears, the primitive relations 
might easily be shifted and disturbed, for 
languages are not as plants tied to their 
respective habitats; their bearers are 
nations capable of any change of seat 
and even of vernacular. Since we see in 
a less distant period, nay, up to the 
present day, how languages disappear and 
how the boundaries of speech are shifted, 
nothing is more natural than to suppose 
that many more languages disappeared, 
and that the shifting of the primitive 

E 3 



68 APPENDIX. 

relationsllip of the geographical distri- 
bution of speech was much more violent, 
at a time when each language was the 
vernacular of a comparatively limited 
number of individuals. Thus arose the 
now observable anomalies in the distri- 
bution of languages over the earth, par- 
ticularly in Asia and Europe. 

We assume therefore that languages 
arose in a very great number ; such as 
were neighbours resembling each other, 
although arising independently, and — 
taking Indo-Germanic or Semitic, say, as 
the centre — spreading more or less in this 
or the other direction. Many of these 
primitive languages now, or perhaps the 
greater part of them, died out in the 
course of ages ; owing to this others 
gradually extended their territory, and the 
geographical distribution of languages was 
so much disturbed that it became im- 



APPENDIX. 69 

possible to discover hardly any traces of 
the primitive law of distribution. 

Whilst therefore the surviving idioms, 
with the increase of the people that 
spoke them, gradually divided themselves 
into several branches (languages, dialects, 
&c.), many of the primitive languages 
which had arisen independently of each 
other, gradually died out. This very pro- 
cess — the decrease of the number of 
languages — is going on speedily and in- 
cessantly, even in our days, for instance 
in America. Here, likewise, let us be 
satisfied with the observation of the fact 
and leave it to philosophy to search 
for a clearer conception and explanation 
from the essence of mankind. 



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knightly or gentle bous-js before 1500 

It notices ulso 'he ancient and present estates of these county families. The work possesses considerable 
"alue to those who are iiiteiested iu geuealogical and Leraldic studies. 

ANECDOTES OF THE 'LONG PARLIAMENT' OF 1645. 
Now ready, in 4to., half morocco, choicely printed, price 7s. 6(J., 

The Mystery of the Good Old Cause : Sarcastic Notices of those Members 

of the Long Parliament that held places, both Civil and Military, contrary to the Self-denying 
Ordinance of April 3, 1645; with the sums of money and lauds they divided among themselves. 
Gives many curious particulars about the famous Assembly not mentioned b\ historians or Viiographers. 
The history of almost every coui ty iu En:;land receives some illustration irom it. Genealogists and anti- 
quaries will fiud iu it much interesting matter. 

Ifow ready, in 4to., very handsomely printed, with curious woodcut initial letters, extra cloth, 183.; 
or crimson morocco extra, the sides and back covered in rich fleur-de-lys, gold tooling, 55-s., 

Eoll of Carlaverlock ; with the Arms of the Earls, Barons, and Knights 

who were present at the Siege of this Castle in Scotland, 28 Edward I., ad. 1300: including the 
Original Anglo-Norman PoL-ra, and an English Translation of the MS. in the British jMuseiuu; 
the whole newly edited by Thomas Wkiuht, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 
A very handsome volume, and a dehghtful one to lovers of Heraldry, as it is the earliest blazon or arms 
buown to exisL. 

UNIFORM WITH 'MAGNA CHARTA.' 

Roll of Battle Abhey ; or, a List of the Principal Warriors who came 

over from Normandy with William the Conqueror and settled in this country, a.d. 10615-7, from 
Authentic Documents, very carefully drawn, and printed on fine plate paper, nearly three leet 
long by two feet wide, with the Arms of the principal Barons elaborately emblazoned in gold and 
colours, price 5s. ; by post, on roller, bs. 4d. 

A Mo.sT ouRTOus DOCUMENT, and of the greatest interest, as the descendants of nearly all these Norman 
Cou'juerors are ar. this moincnt Uviiig amongst ns. No na.mes are believed TO BE IN THIS 'BAITiU. 
Eoll' which are not fully e.vtitled to the distinction. 

HandsouieL> trained aud gUzed iu carved oalt, of an antique pattern, price 223. 6d. 

Warrant to Execut-* Charles I. An Exact Facsimile of this Important 

Document in the Houss of Lords, with the Fifty-nine Signatures of the Regicides, and Corres- 
ponding Seals, admirab v executed on paper made to imitate the Original Ilocument, 22 iu. by 
14 in. Price 2s ; by po»< » 4ci. 
Handsomely framed and glazed in arved oak, of an antique pattern, lis. 6d. 

^ NOW READY. 

Warrant to Executj Ma-7 Q,ueen of Scots. The Exact Facsimile of 

this Important Document, including the Signature of Queen Elizabeth and FacsimOe of the 
Great Seal, on tinted paper, made to imitate the original MS. Safe on roller, 2s. ; by post, 28. id. 
Haudsomely fiamed aud glazed in carved oak, of an antique pattern, 14s. 6d. 

YORKSHIRE BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Now ready, 8vo., half morocco, very neat, price 5s. 6(f., 

Biblio^aphical Account of nearly 1,500 Curious and E-are Books, Tracts, 

MSS., and Engravings, relating to the History and Topography of Yorkshire Collected by 
Mr. Huttkn. With numerous Descriptive Notes. Liteiaiy Anecdotes, Arc. Illustrated with 
curious wood engravings, from Blocks formerly in the possession of the eccentric Johm Cole, of 
Scarborough. Interleaved for MS. Notes, Additions, (fee. 

Only Fifty Copies have been printed on thick paper, for the use of Yorkshire Antiquaries and 
Topographers. 

gS" Catnlnrtues of Curious Book% — Books relating to Family History, Topography, Heraldry 
Portraits, Views, Miscellaneous Engravings, <tc., published at slwrt intervals. 

*,* Where any difficulty occurs in the supply, postage stamps may he remitted direct to the under- 
■•igned, 'who will forward per return. The name of &e Fubhsher MITST IN ALL CASES be given* 

John Camden Hotten, Publisher, 74 and 75, Piccadilly, London. 



BOOKS ON LANGUAGE AND DIALECTS. 

{See TEE SPECTATOR, September, 1865.) 



BY PERMISSION OF H.I.H. PRINCE LUCIEN BONAPARTE 

The Song of Solomon, in the North Derbyshire Dialect. Edited, witA 

Notes, &c., by Thomas Hallam, Esq. — In 1 small vol., square ■24mo., exquisitely printed 
Uniform with the other small books in D alect issued by H.I.H. Prince Lucien Bonaparte. This is the 
first time the Nonli-Derbysliire Diak'ct has been specially treated of. 

The School and College Slang of England; or, Glossaries of the Words 

and Phrases peculiar to the Six great Educational Establishments of tie country. — Preparing. 

Dictionary of Colloquial English; the Words and Phrases in current 

use, commonly called 'Slang' and 'Vulgar;' their Origin and Etymology traced, and their use 
illustrated by examples drav\'n from the genteelest authors. — Preparing, in 2 vols., Svo. 
This work will comprise the well-known "Slang Dictionary,' and present the reader with an extract from 
Ensj'lish Printed Li(eiat"re, in illustration of the actual use of each expression. It will be endeavoured to 
select such illustrations as shall be not only valuable as such, but interesting in themselves. 

Now ready, price 2s. 6d. ■ by post '28. lOd., 

Dictionary of the Oldest Words in the English Language, from the Senii- 

Saxon Period of a d. 12.50 to 1300 : consisting of an Alphabetical Inventory of Every Word found 
in the printed English Literature of the 13th Century, by the late Hereeki Colehidue, Secre- 
tary to the Philological Society. Svo , neat half morocco. 
An invaluable work to historical students and those interested in linguistic pursuits. 

This day, in crown 8vo., handsomely printed, price 7s. 6d., 

Glossary of all the Words, Phrases, and Customs peculiar to Winchester 

College. See 'School Life at Winchester College,' recently published. 

In preparation, crown 8vo., uniform with the 'Slang Dictionary,' 

Lost Beauties and Perishing Graces of the English Language. Eevived 

and Eevivable in England and America. An appeal to authors, poets, clergymen, and public 

speakers. By Dr. Chaules Mackay. 

' Ancient words 
That come from the poetic quarry 
As sharp as swords.'— Hamilton's 'Epistle to Allan Ramsay. 



The Romany in Europe: a Complete History of the Gipsies since their 

first appearance among the Nations of the West. With Notices of their Customs, Language^ the 

variouVLaws enacted, fee. and the Books relating to them. By William Finkekton, h.b.A., 

F. A. S.L.— Preparing, in Svo., handsomely printed. 

An efltirelv original worit upon thi^ curious subject. Many of the notions which have long obta'ned con- 

lerning the origfn and first appeuruaice here of the Gipsies are now proved to be erroneous and without 



the sUglitest foundation. 



This day, price 6s. 6d., pp. 328; by post 7s., 

Slang Dictionary; or, the Vulgar Words, Street Phrases, and 'Fast' 

Expressions of High and Low Society ; many with their Etymology, and a few with their Histoj-y 
traced With curioui illustrations : Literary Slang ; Religious Slang; F^shionabe Slang; Mili- 
tary Slang; City Slang; University Slang; Dandy Slang; Legal Slang; Theatrical Slang; Shop- 
keepers' Slang. 

'It may be doubted if there exists a more amusing volume in the English language.'-SPECTATOB. 

•Val.ableasaworkof reference.'— Saturday Review. 

•All classes of society wiL find a musement or instruction m its pages. —TIMES. 



BEST FRENCH LESSON BOOK EVER PUBLISHED. 
Ordinary price, 5s. ; a few copies now oftered at 3s. (id. 

Vocahulaire Symbolique. A Symbolic French and English Vocabulary 

for Students of every age. By Raghnet. Illustrated by many hundred WoodcL--., exhibiting 
famUiar objects of every description, with French and English explanations, thus stamping the 
French terms and phrases indelibly on the mind. 

Direct application must be made to Mr. Hotten tor this wont. 

* * Where any difficulty occurs in the supply, postage stamps may be remitted direct to the undei> 
Bg^ed, who wiU forward per return. The name of the Publisher MUST IN ALL CASi-a be g'ven. 

John Camden Hotten, 74 and 75, FUcadMy, Lundun. 



BOOKS OF HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, Sc, WORTH HAVING. 

(See THE TIMES, January 22.) 

Anecdotes of the Green Room and Stage ; or, Leaves from an Actor's 

Note-Eook, at Home and Abroad. By George Vandenhoff. Post Svo., pp 336, price 2s. 
Includes orijiiial anecdo'^es of the Keans (father and son), the two Kembles, Macready, Cooke, Liaton, 
Farren, FUiston. Brahara and his Sons, Phelps. Buckstone. Webster, Charles Matthews, Sirtdons, Vestris, 
Helen Fanc-it, Mrs. Nisbet, Miss Cushman, Miss O'Neil, Mrs. Glover, Mrs. Charles Keau, Rachel, Kistori, 
and many other dramatic celebrities. 

Berjeavi's (P. C.) Book of Dogs; the Varieties of Dogs as they are found 

in Old Sculptures, Pictures, Engravings, and Books. 1865. Half morocco, the sides richly 
lettered with gold, 7s. 6d. 

In this very interesting volume are 52 plates, facsimiled from rare old Engravings, Paintings, Sculptures, 
ftc, in which may be traced over 100 varieties of dogs known to the ancients. 



This day, elegantly printed, pp. 9G, wrapper I.?., cloth 2«., post free, 

Carlyle on the Choice of Books. The Inaugural Address of Thomas 

Carlyle, with Memoir,, Anecdotes, Two Portraits, and View of his House in Chelsea. 
The ' Address ' is reprinted from ' The Times, ' carefully compared with twelve other reports, and is 
believed to be the most accurate yet printed. 

The leader in the ' DaUy Telegraph,' April 25th, largely quotes from the above 'Memoir.' 

In foolscap 8vo , cloth, price 3s. 6d., beautifully printed, 

Gog and Magog ; or, the Histoiy of the Guildhall Giants. With some 

Account of the Giants which guard English and Continental Cities. By F. "W. Faikholt, F.S.A. 
With illustrations on wood by the author, coloured and plain. 

The critiques which have appeared upon this ar^ising little work have been imiformly favourable. The 
Art-Journal' says, in a long article, that it thoroi ghly explains who these old giants were, the position they 
occupied in popular mythology, the origin of thei. names, and a score of other matters, all of much interest 
In throwing a liaht upon fabulous portions of our history. 



Now ready, handsomely printed, price Is. dd... 

Hints on Hats ; adapted to the Heads of the People. By Henry Melton, 

of Regent Street. 'With curious woodcvits of the various style of Hats worn at different periods. 
Anecdotes of eminent and fashionable personages are given, and a fimd of interesting information relative 
the History of Costume and change of tastes may be found scattered through its pages. 



This day, handsomely bound, pp. 550, price 7s. M., 

History of Playing Cards ; with Anecdotes of their Use in Ancient and 

Modern Games, Conjuring, Fortune-Telling, and Card-Sharping. With Sixty curious 
illustrations on toned paper. Skill and Sleight of Hand ; Gambling and Calculation ; Cartomancy 
and Cheating: Old Games and Gaming-Houses : Card Revels and Blind Hookey Piquet and 
Vingt-et-un ; Whist and Cribbage ; Old-Fashioned Tricks. 
A highly-interesting volume.'— MoRNlNQ Post. 



This day, 8vo., pp. COO, handsomely printed, 

The History of Signboards, from the Earliest Times to the Present Day; 

with Anecdotes of Famous Taverns and Remarkable Characters. By .Tacoe Larwood and John 
Camden Hotten. The volume has been divided into the following sections : General History of 
Signboards: Historic and Commemorative Signs: Heraldic and Emblematic- Animals and 
Monsters : Birds and Fowls ; Fishes and Insects ; Flowers, Trees, Herbs, &c. • Biblical and 
Religious: Saints, Martyrs, kc- Dignities, Traces, and Profe,ssions : the House and the Table; 
Dress, Plain and Ornamental; Geography and Topography: Humorous and Ccmic; Puns and 
Rebuses ; Miscellaneous Signs ; Eonnell Thornton's Signboard ExJiibition. 

Nearly 100 most curious iUustrations on wood are given, show ng the v?,rio"S old signs which were formerly 
hung from taverns and other houses. The frontispiece represents the famous sign of ' The Man loaded with 
Mischief,' in the colours of the original painting said to have been executed by Hogsirth. 



*,* 'Where any difficulty occurs in the supply, postage stamps may be remitted direct to the under- 
tigned, who wiU forward per return. The name of the Publisher MUST IN AIL CASES be given. 

John Camden Hotten, Publisher, 74 and 75, Piccadilly, London. 



BOOKS OF HISTORY, BTOGRAPIIT, d-c, WORTH HAVING. 

(See THE TIMES, January 22.) 
Pp. 336, handsomely printed, cloth extra, price Ss. 6d., 

Holidays with Hobgoblins; or, Talk of Strange Things. By Dudley 

CosTELLo. With humorous engravings by George Cruikshank. Amongst the chapters may 
be enumerated : Shaving a Ghost : Superstitions and Traditions ; Monsters ; the Ghost of Pit 
Pond; the 'Vatcher of the Dead; the Haunted House near Hampstead ; Dragons, Griffins, and 
Salamanders; Alchemy and Gunpowder; Mother Shipton; Bird History; Witchcraft and Old 
Boguey ; Crabs ; Lobsters ; the Apparition of Moniieur Bodry. 

SUPPLEMENTARY VOLUME TO HONE'S WORKS. 
In preparation, thick 8vo., uniform with 'Year-Book,' pp. 800, 

Hone's Scrap Book. A Supplementary Volume to the ' Every -Day Book,' 

the 'Year- Book,' and the 'Table-Book.' From the MSS. of the late William Hune, with 
upwards of One Hundred and Fifty engravings of curious or eccentric objects. 

BARNUM'S NEW BOOK. 

Humbugs of the World. By P. T. Barnum. Pp. 320, crown 8vo., cloth 

extra, 4s. 6d. 

'A most vivacious book, and a very readable one.'— Globe. 
' The history of Old Adams and his grisly bears is inimitable.' — AthenjeuM. 

'A History of Humbugs by the Prince of Humbugs 1 What book can be more promising?' — Saturday 
Review. 

This day, new edition, with numerous illustrations, 

Log of the 'Water Lily' (Thames Gig), during Two Cruises in the 

Summers of 1861-52, on the Rhine, Neckar, Main, Moselle, Danube, and other Streams of Ger- 
many. By R, B. Mansfield, B. A., of University College, Oxford, and illustrated by Alfred 
Thompson, B.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
This was the earliest boat excursion of the kind ever made on the Continental rivers. Very recently the 
subject iias been revived again in the exploits of Mr. MacGregor in his ' Rob Roy Canoe.' Tlie volume will 
be found most interesting to those who piopose taking a similar trip, whether on the Continent or elsewhere. 

This day, in two vols., 8vo., very handsomely printed, price 16s., 
THE HOUSEHOLD STORIES OF ENGLAND. 

Popular Romances of the West of England; or, the Drolls of Old Com- 

waU. Collected and edited by Robert Hunt, F.R.S. 

For an analysis of this important work see printed description, which may be obtained gratis at the 
publisher's. 

Many of the stories are remarkable for their wild poetic beauty; others surprise us by their quaintnesa; 
whilst others, agam, show forth a tragic force which can only be associated with those rude ages which 
existed long before the period of authentic history. 

Mr. George Cruikshank has supphed two wonderful pictures as illustrations to the work. One Is a portrait 
of Giant Bolster, a personage twelve miles high. 

Eobson; a Sketch, by Augustus Sala. An Interesting Biography, with 

Sketches of his famous characters, 'Jem Baggs,' 'Boots at the Swan,' 'The Yellow Dwarf,' 
'Daddy Hardacre,' (Sic. Price 6<i. 

This day, post 8vo. , with numerous illustrations. 

School Life at Winchester College ; or, the Reminiscences of a Winchester 

Junior. By the author of ' The Log of the Water Lily,' and ' The Water Lily on the Danube.' 
This book does for Winchester what • Tom Brown's School Days' did for Rugby— explains the every-day life, 
peculiar customs, fagging, troubles, pleasures, &c., kc. of lads in their college career at William of Wyke- 
bam's great puVjlic scliooL At the end there is an extensive Glossary of the pecuUar Words. Phrasi'S, Cus- 
toms, Ac, peculiar to the College. Thb Illustraxions have been iimted in imitation of Waieb- 
CoLOUB Drawings. 

%* Where any difficulty occurs in the supply, postage stamps may be remitted direct to the under- 
signed, who will forward per return. The name of the Publisher MUST IN AIL CASES be given. 

John Camden Hotten, Publisher, 74 and 75, Piccadilly, London. 



SCIENTIFIC AND USEFUL BOOKS WORTH HA VING. 

(See THE ATHENMUM, March 10.) 



Post 8vo., cloth extra, full gilt, 12«. M., 

NEW EDITION OF MR EMANUEL'S IMPORTANT WORK 

(lately reviewed in 'The Times,' four columns) is in preparation : — 

Diamonds and Precious Stones: their History, Value, and Properties, 

WITH SIMPLE TF.STS FOR ASIERTAININO THEIR REALITY. By H. EmA-NUEL, F.R.G.S. With 

numerous illustrations, coloured and plain. 
Although this Work is intended as a plain and practical Guide to Buyers and Sellers of Precious Stones the 
HL-it.)ry aiid Litera-tiire of the suliject have not Ijtjeu overlooked. Anealotes of the peculiar accidents and 
Btiange fnituue which have atteudel some Jewela are given, and what is hoped will be found a valuable 
liii<lio^raphy of the subject is added as an Appendix at the end. 



EVERY HOUSEKEEPER SHOULD POSSESS A COPY. 
Now ready, in cloth, price 25. 6d. ; by post 2s. Sd., 

The Housekeeper's Assistant : a Collection of the most valuable Recipes, 

carefully written down for future use, by Mrs. B , durmg her forty years' active service. 

As much as two guineas has been paid for a copy of this invaluable httle work. 



Kow to See Scotland; or, a Fortnight in the Highlands for £6. 

A plain and practical guide.— Price Is. 



Kow ready, 8vo., price Is., 

List of British Pls.nts. Compiled and Arranged by Alex. More, F.L.S. 

This comparative Usi of Briitsh Plant, was drawn up for the use of the country botanist, to show the differ- 
ences in opnnou which exist lietween different authors as to the nmuberof species which ought to be reckoned 
witliiu the compass of the flora of Great Britain. 



This day, neatly printed, price l.s. 6d. ; by post Is Sd., 

Mental Exertion: its Influence on Health. By Dr. Brigham. Edited, 

with additional Notes, by Dr. Arthur LilARkd, Physician to the Great Northern Hospital. 
This is a highly-important little book, showing how far we may educate the mind without 
injuring the body 

The recent untimely deaths of Admiral Fitzroy and Mr. Prescott, whose minds gave way imder exceasive 

mental exertion, fully illustrate the importance of the subject. 



GUNTER'S CONFECTIONERY. 
Now ready, 8to., with numerous illustrations, price 6s. 6d., 

The Modem Confectioner: a Practical Guide to the Most Improved 

Methods for Making the Various Kinds of Confectionery ; with the manner of preparing and 
laying out Desserts; adapted for private families or large establishments. By William Jeakes, 
Chief Confectioner at Messrs. Gunter's (Confectioners to Uer Majesty), Berkeley Square. 
'All housekeepers should have it.'— Dailv Tklegraph. 

*,* This work has won for itaelt the reputation of lieing the Standard English Book on the prepaia- 
tion of aU kinds of Confectionery, and on the arrangement of Desserts. 



Now ready, 2nd edition, in binding ornamented with postage stamps, price Is. ; by post Is. 2d., 

Postage Stamp Collecting, a Standard Guide to; or, a Complete List of 

all the Postage Stamps known to exist, with their Values and Degrees of Rarity. By Messrs. 
CELLARS and Davie. 

tS" This Second Edition gives upwards of 300 Stamps not in the previous issv£. 
'A work upon which the authors, Messrs Bellars and Davie, have been engaged for three years. It includoi 
an account of the Mormon Stamp issued by Bngham Young in 1852.'— Lo.n uon Review. 



In 1 vol., with 300 Drawings from Nature, 2s. fid. plain, 4s. 6d. coloured by hand. 

The Young Botanist: a Popular Guide to Elementary Botany. By T. S. 

Ralph, of the Linnean Society. 

An excellent book for the young Ijeginner. The objects selected as illustrations are either easy of access as 
specimeus of wild plants, or are common in gardens. 



*.* Where any difBculty occurs in the supply, postage stamps may be remitted direct to the under- 
Jifned, who will forward per return. The name of the Publisher MUST IN ALL CASES be given. 

JOHU Camden Hotten, Published/, 74 and 75, Piccadilly, London. 



ANTIQUARIAN AND HERALDIC BOOKS. 

(See QUARTERLY REVIEW for July, 1865.) 



Now ready, in 8to., on tinted paper, nearly 350 pages, very neat, price 5s., 

Family History of the English Counties : Descriptive Accomit of Twenty 

Tiiousand most Curious and Rare Books, Old Tracts, Ancient Manuscripts, Engravings, and 
Privately-printed Family Papers, relating to tiie History of almost every Landed Estate and Old 
English Family in the Country ; interspersed with nearly Two Thousand Original Anecdotes, 
Topographical and Antiquarian Notes. By John Camden Hotten, 
By far the largest colU'Ctinn of English and Welsh Topography and Family History ever formed. Eanb 

article has a small price altized for the convenience of those who may desire to possess any book or tract that 

interests them. 

In 1 vol , 4to., on tinted paper, with 19 large and most curious Plates in facsimile, 
coloured by hand, including an ancient View of the City of Waterford, 

lUnmirated Charter-Roll of Waterfoid, Temp. Eichard II. Price to 

Subscribers, 20s. ; Nofi-Subscribers, 306. 

Of the very United impression proposed, more Hian l.^O copies have already heen snbscrilied for. Amongst 
the Coii'oration Muniments of the Cit> ot Waterford is preserved an ancitnt lllnmuiated Roll, of great 
interest an<l beauty, comprising hU the early Charters and Grants to the City of Waterjord, from the time of 
Henry II. to Richard II. Full-length Portr.iits of each Kini^ adorn the margin, varying from eight to nine 
inches in length— some in armour and some in robes of state. In addition are Portraits of an Archbishop 
in full canonicals, of a Chancellor, and of many of tlie chief Burgesses of the City of VS atertord. as well as 
Bingularly-curious Portraits uf tlie Mayors of Dublin. Waterford, Limerick, and Cork, figured for the most 
part in the quaint bijiaitite costume of the Second Pilchards reign, petuliariiies of that of Edwnrd III. 
Altogetiier this ancient work of ait is unique of its kind iu Ireland, and deserves to he rescued from oblivion. 

AN INTERESTING VOLITME TO ANTIQUARIES. 
Now ready, 4to., half morocco, handsomely printed, price 7s. 6(?., 

Army Lists of the Roundheads and CavaUers in the Civil War. 

These most curious Lists show on which side the gentlemen of England were to be found during the great 
conflict between the King and the Parliament. Only a very few copies have been most carefully reprinted 
on paper that will gladden the heart of the lover of choice books. 

Now ready, 12mo., very choicely printed, price 63. 6d., 

london Directory for 1677. The Earliest Known List of the London 

Merchants. See Review in ' The Times,' Jan. 22. 
This curious little vohime has been reprinted verbatim from one of the only two copies known to he in 
existence. It contains an Introduction pointing out some ot the inincipal persons mentioned in the list. 
For historical and genealogical puriioses the little book is of tue greatest value. Herein wiU be found the 
originators of many of the great firms and co-partnirsliips wliich have prospered tljrough two pregnant 
centuries, and wuicu exist sonje of them in nearly the same names at this day. Its m^s-t distinctive feature ia 
the early severance which it marks of ' goldsnutLs that keep running caches,' precursors of the modern 
bankers, from the mass of the merchants of Loudon. 

Now ready, price 53. ; by post, on roUer, 6s. id.. 

Magna Charta. An Exact Facsimile of the Original Document 

preserved in the British Museum, very carefully drawn, and printed on fine plate paper, nearly 
S feet long by 2 feet wide, with the Arms and Seals of the Barons elaborately euibia^oned in gold 
and coloius. a. d. 1215. 
Copied by express permission, and the only correct drawing of the Great Charter ever taken. H.andsnmely 
framed and giazcd in caived oak. of an antitiue paLt'iru, 22s. 6d. It is uniform with the 'Roll of jittitio 
Abbey.' 
A full translation, with Notes, has just been prepared, price 6d. 



Folio, exquisitely printed onioned paper, with numerous Etchings, Ac, price 28s. 

Millais Family, t^fe Lineage and Pedigi-ee of, recording its History 

irom 1331 to lb65, by J. Eertrand Payne, with lUustratiops from Designs by the Author. 
Of this beautiful volume only sixty copies have been privately printed for presents to the several members 
of the family, 'ihe worB is magnificently bound in blue and gold. These are Viehevtd to be the only etohmkl 
Of au heiaid.0 cliaiacter ever designed and engraved by the distinguished artist of the name. 

Apply direct for tiiis work. 



%• Where any difficulty occurs in the supply, postage stamps may be remitted direct to the under- 
aigned, who -will forward per return. The name of the Publisher MUST IK AIX CASES be given, 

John Camdek Hotten, Publisher, 74 and 75, Piccadilly, Londoti. 



ANTIQUARIAN AND HERALDIC BOOKS. 

(See QUARTERLY REVIEW for July, 1865.) 



Preparing, in small 4to., handsomely printed, 

A List of the Anglo-Norman Families, from the different Battle Abbey 

Rolls, Domesday Book, and the MSS. preserved in the Record and other Public offices of 
England, &c., kc. ; showing the True Sp lling, with the numerous and peculiar variations of the 
names of several thousand distingui.--hed Families from Normandy, Flanders, the Netherlands, 
Germany, Burgundy, Champagne, Mame, Anjou, Picardy, Ouienne, Gascony, Poitou, and 
Brittany, who came over in the train of the Conqueror, anno 10Ui)-1307. 
To the searcher after English family history the above work will be of the greatest value. Tbere are but 

few families in this country who cannot ciium a relationship to one or other of the names mentiou^jd in the 

'List.' 

HERALDRY OP WALES. 
Only 50 copies printed, In marvellous facsimile, 4ta., on old Welsh paper, half morocco, 12s. 6el., 

Display of Herauldry of the particular Coat Armours now in use ia 

the Six Counties in North Wales, and several others elsewhere; with the Names of the Families, 
whereby any man, knowing from what family he is descended, may know his particular Arms. 
By John Reynolds, of Oswestry, Antiquarian; with nearly One Hundred Coat Aimourg 
Blazoned in the Old Style. Chester, printed 17a9. 

From a Unique Copy, of priceless value to the lover of Heraldry and Genealogy. 

In remarkable facsimile, from the rare original, small folio, 

Caxton's Statutes of Henry VII., 1489. Edited, with Notes and Intro- 
duction, by John Rae, Esq., Fellow of the Royal Institution. 

This is the earliest known volume of Printed Statutes, and is further remarkable as being in English. It 
contains some very curious and primitive Ltrgisiatiou on Trade and Domestic Matters, such as ; — 



Price of Hats and Caps 
French Wines 

Act for Pttopling Isle of Wight 
Against Butchers 



Giving of Livery 
Concerning Customs 
Fires in London 
Rebels iu the Field 



Correcting Priests 
Against Hunters 
Marrying a Woman against her 
WUl, &c. 



Price 3s. M. ; or with the Map, 153., 

Dorsetshire : its Vestiges, Celtic, Roman, Saxon, and Danish. The whole 

carefully classified, and the finest Examples of each pointed out. Also adapted as an Index to 
the Illustrated Map, on which the several Sites are indicated. From the Personal Researches and 
Investigations of Chaules Wahne, F.S.A. 

'Let a man carry w^th him also some card or book describing the country wherein he travelleth, which will 
be a good key to his inquiry.'— Lokd Bacon. 

In the press, 4to., Part I,, 

The Celtic Tumuli of Dorsetshire: an Account of Personal and other 

Researches on the Sepulchral Mounds of the Durotiges; forming the First Part of a Description 
of the Primeval Antiquities of the County. 

In small 4to., handsomely printed. Is. Gd., 

Esholt in Airedale, Yorkshire: the Cistercian Priory of St. Leonard, 

Account of, with View of Esholt Hall. 

THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT EXHIBITION. 
2 vols., 8vo., 830 pages, scaice, 12s. 6d., 

Evans's Catalogue of Engraved Portraits, the largest ever formed, com- 
prising Thirty Thousand Portraits of Persons connected with the History and Literature of Great 
Britain, the Colonies, and America ; with concise Biographical Notices. 

*." Copies of this admirable Catalogue are now very difficult to procure. The ahove is a good clean 
copy in boards. 

Mr Hotten has formed a large collection of Engraved Portraits, and will give oidera from this list 
his best, atiuution, his own stock of Portraits numt>eriug upwards of 20,000. 

*,* Where any difficulty occurs in the supply, postage stamps may be remitted direct to the under- 
signed, who will forward per return. The name of the Publisher ITUST IN ALL CASES be given< 

John Camden Hotten, Publisher, 74 and 75, Piccadilly, London. 



HUMOROUS AND AMUSING BOOKS WORTH HAVING. 

(See SATURDAY REVIEW, October 29.) 
In one vol., exquisitely printed from silver-faced type, price 43. M. 

Choicest Jests of English Wits ; from the Rude Jokes of Ancient Jesters 

to the refined and impromptu Witticisms of Theodore Hook and Douglas Jerrold ; inchiding the 

cream of Joe Miller : comprising the best sayings, facetious and merry, which nave contributed 

to give to our country the name of Merry England. Edited by W. Mov Thomas, Esq. 

Note.— This work has been in preparation since 1858. Nearly 500 curious old Jest Bnoks and collections o( 

famous Witticisms are under examinalion for materials. It is believed that no similar ciiuipilation issued 

since the days when Jack Mottley comjiiled the book of Jests usually attributed to ' Joe Miller' will be fuuiid 

to excel the above for true wit and rehned humour. 

Uniform with the above, exquisitely printed, 

The Choicest Humorous Anecdotes and Short Stories in the English 

Language. 

tJniform with the above, exquisitely printed, 

The Choicest Epigrams ta the English Language. 

Uniform with the above, exquisitely printed. 

The Choicest Humorous Poetry in the English Language. 

AN EXTKAORDINAEY BOOK. 
Beautifully printed, thick 8vo.. new, half morocco, Roxburghe, 12s. 6<i. 

Hotten's Edition of 'Contes Drolatiques' (Droll Tales collected from the 

Abbeys of Loraine). Par Balzac. With Four Hundred and Twenty-five MarveQous, Extrava- 
gant, and Fantastic Woodcuts, by Gustave Dore. 
The most singular designs ever attempted by any artist. This book is a fund of amuaement. So crammed 

is it with pictuies that even the contents are adorned with thirty-three illustrations. Direct application must 

be made to Mr. Hotten for this work. 

THE ORIGINAL EDITION OF JOE MILLER'S JESTS. 17".9. 

Joe Miller's Jests; or, the Wit's Vade Mecum; a Collection of the most 

brilliant Jests, politest Repartees, most elegant Bons Mots, and most pleasant short Stories in the 
English Language. An interesting specimen of remarkable facsimile, bvo., half morocco, price 
9s. Gd. London ; printed by T. Read, ITBi*. 

Only a very few copies of this humorous book have been reproduced. 

NEW BOOK OF IRRESISTIBLE HUMOUR. 
This day, handsomely printed on toned paper, price 3». Sd. 

Hotten's 'Josh Billing's: His Book of Sayings;' •with Introduction by 

E. P. HiNGSTON. companion of Artemus Ward when on his 'Travels.' 

For mauy years past the sai ings and comicalities of ' Jnsli Billings ' have been quoted in our newspapers. 
His humour is m a quieter kind, more aiiLoristiuiiUy cianic. than the fun and rb-oUeiy of the 'delicious 
Artemus,' as Charles Rea'W .styles the Showman. If Artennis Ward may be called the conu'c stnry teller of 
his time, ' Ju.sh' can certainly bn dubbed the comic ess.iyi.^t of his 'lay. Although promised some lirue i.fo, 
Mr. Billings' 'Book' has only just appeared, but it loutams all bis best and most mirth provoting articles. 

This day, in three vols., crown Svo., cloth, neat, 

Orpheus C. Kerr Papers. The Original American Edition, in Three 

Series, complete Three vols., 8vo., cloth, sells at £1 2s. 6ri., now specially offered at 15s. 

A most mirth-provoking work. It waR first introduced into this country by the Englisn oftit-nrs who were 
quai tercd during the late war on the Canadian froutii^r. They found it one of the droil.-st pieces of composi- 
tion they hail ever met with, and so brought copies over for the delectation of their friends. 

Abridgment of 'OnrHEUS C. Kerr,' price Is. 

Notice.— Mr. Hotten (Artemus Ward's Publisher in this Country) has 

just issued another Book of real Wit and Humour, ORPHEUS C KERR (offioe-seeKer' PAPERS. 
The price is Is., and readers of Mr. Hotten's edition of the ' Biglow Papers' and 'Artemus Ward' 
will not regret any acquaintance they may form with "Orpheus C. Kerr.' 

*,* 'Wliere any difficulty occurs in the supply, postage stamps may be remitted direct to the under- 
ligned, who -will forward per return. The name of the Publisher MUST ^^ ALL CASES be gitrn. 

John Camden Hotten, Publisher, 74 and 75, Piccadilly, London. 



HUMOROUS AND AMUSING BOOKS WORTH HAVING. 

(See SATURDAY REVIEW, October 29.) 
In one vol., choicely printed, 

Piccadilly Riddle Book: an entirely New Collection of the best Puns, 

Conundrums, and other 'SmallTalk.' Gathered together hy the Honourable Hugh Rowley, 
and illustrated by nearly One Hundred Comic Designs from his pencil. 

Preparing, in 4to., exiiuisitely printed on ivory paper. 

Pack on Pegasus. Entirely New Edition, greatly enlarged, witW 

additional illustrations by Noel Paton, Millais, John Tenniel, Richard Doyle, AI, Ellen 
Euwji RDS, and otlier distinguished artists. 

THACKERAY AND GEORGE CRUIKSHANK. 
In small 8vo., cloth, very neat, price 4.'!. tiii. 

Thackeray's Humour. Illustrated by the Pencil of George Cruikshank. 

Twenty-four Humorous Designs executed by this inimitable artist in the years l.S:W-40, as illus- 
trations to 'The Fatal Boots' and 'The Diary of Barber Cox,' with letterpress descriptions 
suggested by the late Mr. Thackeray. 



THE ENGLISH GUSTAVE DORE. 
This day, in 4to., handsomely printed, cloth gilt, price 7s. 6d. ; with plates uncoloured, 5». 

The Hatchet Throwers; with Thirty-six Illustrations, coloured after the 

Inimitably Grotesque Drawings of Ernest Griset. 

Comprises the astonishing adventures of Three Ancient Mariners, the Brothers Brass ot Bristol, Mr. 
Corker, and Miingo Midge. 

' A Munchausen sort of book. The drawings by M. Griset are very powerful and eccentric' — Saturday 
Review. 



This day, in crown 8vo., uniform with 'Biglow Papers,' price 3s. Gd. 

Wit and Humour. By the ' Autocrat of the Breakfast Table.' A volume 

of delightfully humorous Poems, very similar to the mirthful verses of Tom Hood. Readers wiU 
not be disappointed with this work 



Cheap edition, handsomely printed, price Is. 

Vere Vereker; a Comic Story, by Thomas Hood, with Punning Illustra- 

TIONS by WlLLIAiM Brunton. 

One of the most amusing volumes which have been published for a long time. For a piece of broad 
humour, of the liiglily-seusatioual kmd, it is perhaps the best piece of Uterary fun by ToM HooD. 



In 1 vol., 8vo., handsomely printed, 

A Pedlar's Wallet. By Dudley Costello. With Illustrations. 



Immediately, at all the Libraries, 

Cent, per Cent.: a Story written upon a Bill Stamp. By Blanchard 

Jerrold. AVith numerous coloured illustrations in the style of the late Mr. Leech's charming 
designs. 

A Str>ry of 'The Vampires of London,' as they were pithily termed in a recent notorious case, and one of 
undoubted irt'.erest. 



AN ENTIRELY IT^W BOOK OP DELIGHTFUL FAIRY TALES. 

Now ready, square 12mo., handsomely printed on toned paper, in cloth, green and gold, 

price 4s. 6^. plain, 5s. GcJ. coloured ;by post Gd. extra). 

Family Fairy Tales ; or, Glimpses of Elfiand at Heatherston Hall. Edited 

by Cholmondeley Pennell, Authorof ' Puck on Pegasus,' Ac, adorned with beautiful pictures 
of ' My Lord Lion,' ' King Uggermugger,' and other great folks. 
This charming volume of Original Tales has been universally praised by the critical press. 



Pansie : a Child Story, the Last Literary Effort of Nathaniel Hawthorne, 

12mo., price M. 



Rip Van Winkle ; and the ' Story of Sleepy Hollow.' By Washington 

Irving. Foolscap 8vo., very neatly printed on toned paper, illustrated cover, 6(J. 



*,* Where any difficulty occurs in the supply, postage stamps may be remitted direct te the under- 
signed, who -will forward per return. The name of the Publisher MUST VS AIL CASES b« given. 
JoHM CAMnKKT HoTTKN. 74 ond 7.5. Piscadillv. London. 



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